Hernia causes & symptoms

What is a hernia?

A hernia occurs if an internal organ protrudes through a weak area in your tissue or muscle. Most hernias develop in the area of the abdomen between the hips and chest. It is vital to treat a hernia as early as possible. The most common types of hernias are:

1. Inguinal hernia

When tissue, like intestinal parts, pushes through a weak area in the abdominal muscles, it develops into an inguinal hernia.

2. Femoral hernia

Fatty tissue or an area of the bowel protrudes through the upper end of the inner thigh into the groin.

3. Umbilical hernia 

Fatty tissue or an intestinal part protrudes through the abdominal area near the belly button (naval).

4. Hiatus hernia

The stomach portion moves up into the chest cavity through the diaphragmatic opening.

5. Incisional hernia

Tissue protrudes from an abdominal scar from a distant pelvic or abdominal operation.

6. Epigastric hernia

Fatty tissue droops through the abdomen region between the lower portion of the sternum and the navel.

7. Spigelian hernia

The intestine protrudes through the abdomen just below the belly button, on the sides of the abdominal muscles. 

8. Diaphragmatic hernia

The abdominal organ moves into the chest through a diaphragmatic opening.

What are the causes of hernia?

Weakened muscles are the most common hernia causes, which may have existed since birth or are caused by aging and repetitive stress on the groin and abdominal areas. Such strain can result from strenuous physical activity, pregnancy, obesity, persistent coughing, or constipation-related pushing on the toilet.

Umbilical hernia causes in adults are straining on the abdominal area, having a persistent cough, giving birth, and being overweight. The hiatal hernia causes are unknown, but age-related diaphragm weakness or abdominal pressure may play a role.

Hernia Causes & symptoms

What are the symptoms of a hernia?

A hernia in the groin or abdomen can cause a visible bulge or lump that can disappear or be held back when lying. The bulge may reoccur once it has been pressed in by crying, laughing, coughing, pressing down during a bowel movement, or exercising. Other hernia symptoms include:

  • Scrotum or groin bulge or swelling.
  • Increased pain at the bulge site.
  • Pain during lifting.
  • A constant, dull pain.
  • Increase in the size of the bulging area over time.
  • Feeling heaviness or signs of bowel obstruction.

Hernia symptoms in males include scrotum tugging sensation around the testicles

Hiatal hernias have no visible bulges on the outside of the body. Rather, hernia symptoms such as indigestion, heartburn, frequent regurgitation, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing may occur.

How do you diagnose a hernia?

Physical examination usually reveals or feels a protrusion in the region where a hernia has formed. During a typical physical examination for inguinal hernias in men, the patient is instructed to cough when the doctor feels the patient’s testicular or groin region. Soft-tissue scanning, such as a CT scan, can aid in the diagnosis of the ailment in some cases.

What is the treatment for a hernia?

Hernias generally do not improve on their own, and surgical procedures may be the only option to treat them. However, your physician will advise you on the best hernia treatment. The doctor may also make a referral to a surgeon. If the surgeon believes that healing your hernia is necessary, he or she will tailor the method of correction to your specific needs.

If a kid has an umbilical hernia that is massive or has not recovered by the age of four or five years, surgical intervention may be recommended. A kid can normally avoid the complications of surgery at this age.

When an adult develops an umbilical hernia, surgical intervention is usually advised since the condition is unlikely to get better on its own and the possibility of complications is relatively high. Hernia treatment or surgery can be done in one of three ways:

Open surgery 

It Involves making an incision into the body at the site of the hernia. The bulging tissue is restitched together, as is the deteriorated muscle wall. To provide additional support, a form of mesh is often transplanted in the region.

The laparoscopic procedure 

It involves a similar form of repair. Rather than an incision to the outside of the groin or abdomen, tiny cuts are made to enable surgical tools to be inserted to complete the process.

Robotic hernia repair

It is the same as a laparoscopic surgery, done through tiny cuts. The surgeon performs robotic surgery while sitting at a console in the surgery room, where he or she controls the surgical tools. While robotic surgery is used to repair weak spots or minor hernias, it can also be utilized to restore the abdominal wall.

The hernia treatment cost varies based on the treatment center, the type of surgery (which can be laparoscopic or open), the size of the hernia, and the part affected.

What can happen if you don’t manage a hernia?

Hernias, except umbilical hernias in newborns, do not go away on their own. A hernia can become more painful and larger over time, or it can cause complications. Untreated femoral or inguinal hernias can lead to the following complications:


An intestinal part is trapped, cutting off its blood flow. In these kinds of cases, immediate surgical treatment (within hours of the occurrence) is required to avoid tissue death.


An intestinal part becomes embedded in the inguinal canal, resulting in vomiting, stomach pain, nausea, and a painful bulge in the groin.

What can be done to prevent a hernia?

  • Eat a nutritious diet and exercise to maintain your ideal body weight.
  • Consume a sufficient amount of fruits, whole grains, and vegetables to prevent constipation.
  • Use the correct technique when lifting heavy objects and weights. Avoid lifting things that are too heavy for you.
  • Consult a physician if you have persistent sneezing or coughing.
  • Don’t smoke since it may cause coughing, which can cause a hernia.

What can you expect after surgical management for a hernia?

You will be provided with advice following the surgical procedure. These entail what to eat, ways to care for the operation site, and ways to minimize physical strain. Hernia can reoccur despite repair procedures. This can be driven by intrinsic tissue weakness or prolonged healing. Smoking and obesity are also significant risk factors for the recurrence of the hernia.

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